## Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes:- GLOBE: Latitudes And Longitudes

In this post, we provide Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes:- Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes. In class 6th Geography chapter 2 you will read about the Globe, the axis used in the globe, the Heat zone of the Earth etc. These notes help students of class 6 as well as aspirants who are preparing for UPSC and other govt exams like SSC and railway. These notes are based on the CBSE NCERT Book Class 6 geography syllabus.

## Globe

Globe is a true model (miniature form) of the earth.

• It is of wearing size and type
• globe is not fixed it can be rotated the same way as a top spin or a Porter wheel is rotated
• on the globe countries, continents And oceans are shown in their correct size

### Axis

• Â Canada that fixes through the globe in a tilted position is called the axis.
• Â pass through their 2 points called poles the North Pole and the South Pole.
• Â the globe can be moved around the needle from west to east. ( same as the earth’s direction ).

does not have any such needle it moves around an imaginary line.

### Equator

• Â It is an imaginary circular line placed horizontally which divides Earth into two equal parts called the Equator.
• Northern hemisphere- Northern half of the earth is called the Northern hemisphere.
• The southern hemisphere- the southern half of the earth is called the Southern hemisphere
• Â All The parallel circles from the equator to the pole are called parallel latitude.
• The equator represents 0Â° latitude.
• The distance from the equator to either pole is 1/4th of the circle which round the earth so it will measure 1/4th of 360Â°, that is 90Â°.
• North Pole- 90Â° north latitude.
• South Pole- 90Â° South latitude.Â
• All parallels which are North of the equator are called North latitude similarly all parallels which are the South of the equator are called South latitude.
• The value of these latitudes is represented by the letter N or S.
• The earth is a sphere so as we move away from the equator towards the pole the size of the parallel latitude decreases.

#### Important parallels of latitude:-

• The Equator is 0Â°
• North Pole- 90Â° N
• South Pole- 90Â° S

There are four important parallels between latitudes also.

1. Tropic of Cancer (23Â½Â° N) in the Northern Hemisphere.
2. Tropic of Capricorn (23Â½Â° S) in the Southern Hemisphere.
3. Arctic Circle at 66Â½Â° north of the equator.
4. Antarctic Circle at 66Â½Â° south of the equator.

## Heat zone of the earth

Torrid Zone:
The midday sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This area receives the maximum heat and is called
the Torrid Zone.

Temperate Zones:-
The areas bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere, have moderate temperatures. These are, therefore, called Temperate Zones.

Frigid Zones:-
Areas lying between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere are very cold. It is because the sun does not rise much above the horizon. Therefore, its rays are always slanting and provide less heat. These are, therefore, called Frigid Zones.

## Meridians:-

Longitude is the lines of reference running from the North Pole to the South Pole which are perpendicular to the equator. These are called the meridians of longitude, and the distances between them are measured in â€˜degrees of longitude.â€™ Each degree is further divided into minutes, and minutes into seconds. They are semi-circles and the distance between them decreases when we go towards the pole and become zero at the pole, where all the meridians meet.

### PrimeMeridian-

Unlike parallels of latitude, all meridians are of equal length. Thus, it was difficult to number the meridians. Hence, the count should begin from the meridian which passed through Greenwich, where the British Royal Observatory is located. This meridian is called the Prime Meridian

• Its value is 0Â° longitudeÂ
• from it, we count 180Â° eastward as well as 180Â° westward.Â
• The Prime Meridian divide the earth into two equal halves,
• Â the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere.
• Therefore, the longitude of a place is followed by the letter E for the east and W for the west.
• Note that 180Â° East and 180Â° West meridians are on the same line.

With the help of longitude and latitude, you can locate any point on the globe very easily.

## LONGITUDE  AND TIME

The movement of the earth-moon and the planet help us to measure time. When the Prime Meridian of Greenwich has the sun at the highest point in the sky, all the places along this meridian will have midday or noon.
As the earth rotates from west to east, those places east of Greenwich will be ahead of Greenwich time and those to the west will be behind it.

The rate of difference can be calculated as follows.

• The earth rotates 360Â° in about 24 hours, which means 15Â° an hour or 1Â° in 4 minutes.
• Thus, when it is 12 noon at Greenwich, the time at 15Â° east of Greenwich will be 15 Ã— 4 = 60 minutes, i.e., 1 hour ahead of Greenwich
time, which means 1 p.m.
• But at 15Â° west of Greenwich, the time will be behind Greenwich time by one hour, i.e., it will be 11.00 a.m. Similarly, at 180Â°, it will be midnight when it is 12 noon at Greenwich.

## Why do we have Standard Time?

The local time of different places which are on different Meridian is different.

In India, there will be a difference of about 1 hour and 45 minutes in the local times of Dwarka in Gujarat and Dibrugarh in Assam. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt the local time of some Central Meridian of a country as a standard time zone for the country. In India, the longitude of 82Â½Â° E (82Â°30′ E) is treated as the standard Meridian.

India located east of Greenwich at 82Â°30′ E is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT.

Some countries have a great longitudinal extent and so they have adopted more than one standard time. For example, In Russia, there is 11 Standard Time.

The earth has been divided into twenty-four time zones of one hour each. Each zone thus covers 15Â° of longitude.

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