Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 Notes:- Major Domain of the Earth Class 5 notes

In this post, we provide Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 Notes. In CBSC Class 6 Geography Chapter 5: Major Domain of the Earth we learn about the Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, and Biosphere. We have read in Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 notes, the earth is the only planet that has life. All essential elements of life, like land, water and air are present on the earth. The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which 3 main components of the environment meet, overlap, and interact.

These three components are

  • Lithosphere
  • Atmosphere
  • Hydrosphere

The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water, and air together, which contains all forms of life.

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The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere. It comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which sustain organisms.

There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface. 

  • The large land masses are known as the continents and 
  • The huge water bodies are called the ocean basins. 

All the oceans of the world are connected with one Another. The level of seawater remains the same everywhere. The elevation of the land is measured from the level of the sea, which is taken as zero.


There are seven major continents. These are separated by large water bodies. These continents are

continent and ocean
  1. Asia:- It is the largest continent. It covers about one-third (44,579,000 sq. km ) of the total land area of the earth. located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. Asia is subdivided into 48 countries, three of them (Russia, Kazakhstan, and Turkey) having a part in Europe. The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent. Asia is separated from Europe by the Ural mountains on the west. The combined landmass of Europe and Asia is called Eurasia (Europe + Asia).
  2. Europe:- Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
  3. Africa:- Africa is the second largest continent after Asia. A large part of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the only continent through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator (almost through the middle) and the Tropic of Capricorn pass. The Sahara Desert, the world’s largest hot desert, is located in Africa. The continent is bound on all sides by oceans and seas. The world’s longest river, the Nile flows through Africa.
  4. North America:- North America is the third largest continent in the world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. The continent lies completely in the Northern and Western Hemisphere. North America is surrounded by- Pacific ocean, Atlantic ocean, and Arctic ocean. 
  5. South America:- South America lies mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. The Andes, the world’s longest mountain range, runs through its length from north to South. South America has the world’s largest river, the Amazon.
  6. Australia:- Australia is the smallest continent that lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere. It is called an island continent. 
  7. Antarctica:- completely in the Southern Hemisphere, is a huge continent. The South Pole lies almost at the center of this continent. As it is located in the South Polar Region, it is permanently covered with thick ice sheets. There are no permanent human settlements. Many countries have research stations in Antarctica. India also has two research stations named as Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.


Water covers a very big area of the earth’s surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. The Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is, ice, water, and water vapor.  The earth is called the blue planet. More than 71 percent of the earth is covered with water and 29 percent is with land.

The hydrosphere consists of water in all its forms. As running water in oceans and rivers and in lakes, ice in glaciers, underground water, and the water vapor in the atmosphere all comprise the hydrosphere.

More than 97% of the Earth’s water is found in the oceans and is too salty for human use. A  large proportion of the rest of the water is in the form of ice sheets and glaciers or under the ground and a very small percentage is available as freshwater for human use.  Hence,  despite being a  ‘blue planet’  we face a shortage of water.


Oceans are a major part of the hydrosphere. They are all interconnected. The ocean waters are always moving. The three chief movements of ocean waters are the waves, the tides, and the ocean currents. 

The Four major oceans in order of their size are.

  1. The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. It is spread over one-third of the earth. Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the earth, lies in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Ocean is almost circular in shape. Asia,  Australia, North and South Americas surround it. 
  2. The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean in the world. It is ‘S-shaped. It is flanked by the North and South Americas on the western side, and Europe and Africa on the eastern side. The coastline of the Atlantic Ocean is highly indented. It is the busiest Ocean. 
  3. The Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a country, that is, India. The shape of the ocean is almost triangular. In the north, it is bound by Asia, in the west by Africa and in the east by Australia. 
  4. The Arctic Ocean is located within the Arctic Circle and surrounds the North Pole. It is connected with the Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water known as the Berring Strait. It is bound by the northern coasts of North America and Eurasia.

The Southern Ocean encircles the continent of Antarctica and extends northward to 60 degrees south Latitude.


Layers of Atmosphere

The earth is surrounded by a layer of gas called the Atmosphere. This thin blanket of air provides us with the air we breathe and protects us from the harmful effects of the sun’s rays. The atmosphere extends up to a height of about 1,600 kilometers.  It is divided into five layers based on composition, temperature, and other properties.  These layers starting from the earth’s surface are called –

  1. Troposphere
  2. Stratosphere
  3. Mesosphere
  4. Thermosphere
  5. exosphere. 

The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen 78% and oxygen 21%, which make up about 99% of clean, dry air. and other gases like carbon dioxide, argon, and others comprise 1% by volume. Oxygen is the breath of life. Nitrogen helps in the growth of living organisms. Carbon dioxide, though present in a minute amount, absorbs heat radiated by the earth, thereby keeping the planet warm. It is also essential for the growth of plants.

 The density of the atmosphere varies with height. It is maximum at sea level and decreases rapidly as we go up. The climbers experience problems in breathing due to a decrease in the density of air. They have to carry with them oxygen cylinders. The temperature also decreases as we go upwards. The atmosphere exerts pressure on the earth. This varies from place to place. Air moves from high pressure to low pressure. Moving air is known as wind.

Biosphere – The Domain of Life

The biosphere is the narrow zone of contact between land, water, and air. In this zone, life exists.  There are several species of organisms that vary in size from microbes and bacteria to huge mammals. All the living organisms including humans are linked to each other and to the biosphere for survival.

The organisms in the biosphere may broadly be divided into two kingdom

  1. Plant kingdom 
  2. Animal Kingdom.

The three domains of the earth interact with each other and affect each other. The discharge of waste material into lakes and rivers makes the water unsuitable for human use. It also damages other forms of life. Emissions from industries, thermal power plants, and vehicles, pollute the air. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important constituent of air. But an increase in the amount of CO2 leads to an increase in global temperatures. This is termed global warming.

Class 6 Geography all Chapter Notes
Class 6 Geography Chapter 1 Notes:- The Earth In the Solar System
Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes:- Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes
Class 6 Geography Chapter 3 Notes:- Motion of the Earth
Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Notes:- Maps
Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 Notes:- Major Domains of the Earth
Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Notes:- Major Landforms of the earth
Class 6 Geography Chapter 7 Notes:- Our Country – India
Class 6 Geography Chapter 8 Notes:- India: Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife
Class 6 Geography Notes

Class 6 Geography all Chapter solution:-

Class 6 Geography Chapter 1 Solution:- The Earth In the Solar System
Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Solution:- Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes
Class 6 Geography Chapter 3 Solution:- Motion of the Earth
Class 6 Geography Chapter 4 Solution:- Maps
Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 Solution:- Major Domains of the Earth
Class 6 Geography Chapter 6 Solution:- Major Landforms of the earth
Class 6 Geography Chapter 7 Solution:- Our Country – India
Class 6 Geography Chapter 8 Solution:- India: Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife

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