Class 7 Geography Chapter 7 Notes- Human Environment- Settlement, Transport and Communication
In this post, we provide Class 7 Geography Chapter 7 Notes- Human Environment- Settlement, Transport and Communication. In class 7 geography ch 7 notes we studied Different Types of settlements, transportation such as Roadways, Railways, Waterways etc and Communication. You can also download class 7th Geography chapter 7 notes pdf. You can also check out NCERT Notes for all Subjects.
Settlements are places where people build their homes. Early human beings lived on trees and in caves. When they started to grow crops it became necessary to have a permanent home. The settlements grew near the river valleys as the water was available and the land was fertile. With the development of trade, commerce and manufacturing, human settlements became larger. The settlement flourished and civilizations developed near river valleys. For example Indus Valley Civilization.
Settlements are categorised into two types.
- Permanent Settlements- In these settlements, people build homes to live in. In today’s time more and more settlements are permanent settlements.
- Temporary Settlements- Settlements occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements. The people living in deep forests, hot and cold deserts and mountains often dwell in such temporary settlements. They practice hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation and transhumance.
The place where a building or a settlement develops is called its site. The natural conditions for selection of an ideal site are- favourable climate, availability of water suitable land, and fertile soil.
Different Types of settlements
Settlement can be classified into two categories: rural and urban settlements.
Rural Settlement- The villages are rural settlements where people are engaged in activities like agriculture, fishing, forestry, crafts work and trading etc.
- Rural settlements can be compact or scattered.
- Compact settlement- A compact settlement is a closely built area of dwellings, wherever flat land is available.
- Scattered settlement- In a scattered settlement dwellings are spaced over an extensive area. This type of settlement is mostly found in hilly tracts, thick forests, and regions of extreme climate
In rural areas, people build houses to suit their environment.
- In regions of heavy rainfall, they have slanting roofs.
- In places where water accumulates in the rainy season, the houses are constructed on a raised platform or stilts.
- Thick mud-walled houses with thatched roofs are very common in areas of hot climates.
- Local materials like stones, mud, clay, straw etc are used to construct houses.
Urban Settlements- In urban areas, people are engaged in manufacturing, trading, and services. Name some of the villages, towns and cities of your state. The towns are small and the cities are larger urban settlements.
Transport is the means by which people and goods move.
- In the early days, People had to walk and used animals to carry their goods. The invention of the wheel
- made transport easier. With the passage of time different means of transport developed but even today people use animals for transport.
- In our country donkeys, mules, bullocks and camels are common. In the Andes Mountains of South America, llamas are used, as are yaks in Tibet.
- Modern means of transport thus save time and energy.
The four major means of transport are roadways, railways, waterways and airways.
Roads are the most commonly used means of transport, especially for short distances.
Roads are classified into two types.
- Metalled (pucca)
- Unmetalled (kutcha)
- The plains have a dense network of roads.
- Roads have also been built in terrains like deserts, forests and even high mountains.
- Roads built underground are called subways/under paths.
- Flyovers are built over raised structures.
- Manali-Leh highway in the Himalayan Mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world.
The railways carry heavy goods and people over long distances quickly and cheaply.
- The invention of the steam engine and the Industrial Revolution helped in the speedy development of rail transport. In modern times Diesel and electric engines have largely replaced steam engines.
- In some places super fast trains have been introduced to make the journey faster.
- In the plain areas, the railway network is well developed.
- The Indian railway network is well developed and It is the largest in Asia.
Note- The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway system connecting St. Petersburg in Western Russia to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast.
Since the early days’ waterways were used for transportation. Waterways are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances. They are mainly of two types –
- Inland waterways – Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways. For example Ganga-Brahmaputra river system, the Great Lakes in North America and the river Nile in Africa.
- Sea routes- Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another. These routes are connected with the ports.
A list of Major Ports in India is given here.
This is the fastest way of transport developed in the early twentieth century. It is also the most expensive due to the high cost of fuel.
- Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather like fog and storms.
- It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas, especially with no roads and railways.
A list of Major Airports in India is given here.
Communication is the process of conveying messages to others. Different modes of communication are used to provide information, educate as well as entertain.
- Mass Media- Through newspapers, radio and television we can communicate with many people. They are therefore called mass media.
- The satellites have made communication even faster.
- Now we can send electronic mail or e-mails through the Internet.
- Wireless telephonic communications through cellular phones have become very popular today.
- The Internet not only provides us with worldwide information and interaction but has also made our lives more comfortable. Now we can reserve tickets for railways, airways and even cinemas and hotels sitting at home.
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