Class 8 Science Chapter 1 notes pdf Crop Production and Management

In this post, we will discuss class 8 Science Chapter 1 notes pdf Crop Production and Management. Class 8th science ch 1 notes help students in revision. In crop production and management notes class 8, we will learn about Basic Practices of Crop Production, Animal husbandry. You can also download Crop Production and Management notes class 8 pdf for further study.

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Class 8 Science Chapter 1 notes overview

  1. We already know that
    • all living organisms required food.
    • the energy from the food is utilised by an organism for carrying out its various life processes such as digestion respiration and excretion.
    • We get our food from plants or animals.
  2. In order to provide food for large population-regular production, proper management and distribution are necessary.

Crops:- When the same kind of plants are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop. For example, a crop of wheat means that all the plants grown in a field are that of wheat.

In our country, three categories of Crops are grown

  1. Kharif crop
  2. Rabi crop and
  3. Zaid crop

Kharif crop:- the crops which are grown in the rainy season (that is from June to September) are called Kharif crops. example paddy, maize, soybean, groundnut and cotton.

Ravi crop:- the crop which is grown in winter (that is from October to March) is called the Ravi crop. example wheat, gram, pea mustard, and line seed.

Zaid crop:- the crops Grow n in the summer season. Examples are moong, muskmelon, watermelon, cucumber, bitter guard and guard.

Basic Practices of Crop Production

  • Preparation of Soil
  • Sowing
  • Adding manual and fertilizer
  • Irrigation
  • Protection from weed
  • Harvesting
  • Storage.

Preparation of Soil

Soil Preparation:- The Preparation of the soil is the first step before growing a crop. it involves loosening And tilling of the soil. This allows the root to penetrate deep into the soil.

  • The loose soil allows the root to breathe easily.
  • The loose soil help in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the soil.

Agricultural Implements

Plough:- this is used for tilling the soil, adding fertiliser to the crop, removing weeds, and scraping of soil. The plough is made of wood and attached by pair of bulls.

Class 8 Science Chapter 1 notes The plough
The plough

hoe:- It is used for removing weeds and for losing the soil.

A hoe
A hoe

Cultivator:-cultivator used for ploughing. it is driven by a tractor. It saves labour and time.

The cultivator is driven by a tractor
The cultivator is driven by a tractor


Sowing:- Sowing is the most important part of crop production. sowing is the process of putting seeds in the soil.

Selection Of Seeds

Take a beaker and fill half of it with water. Put a handful of wheat seeds and stir well. Wait for some time. after some time some seeds float in the water and some seeds settle down. Good quality seeds are always heavier than low-quality seeds.

Adding Manure and Fertilisers

The substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are called manure and fertilisers.

S. No.FertiliserManure
1.A fertiliser is an inorganic salt.Manure is a natural substance obtained by the decomposition of cattle dung, human waste and plant residues.
2.A fertiliser is prepared in factories.Manure can be prepared in the fields.
3.A fertiliser does not provide any humus to the soil.Manure provides a lot of humus to the soil.
4.Fertilisers are very rich in plant nutrients like nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium
Manure is relatively less rich in plant nutrients.
Differences between Fertiliser and Manure

Advantages of Manure: Organic manure is considered better than fertilisers. This is because

  • it enhances the water holding capacity of the soil.
  • it makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases becomes easy.
  • it increases the number of friendly microbes.
  • it improves the texture of the soil.


Irrigation:- Supply of water to the crop at appropriate intervals is called irrigation.

Sources of irrigation:

  • wells,
  • tubewells,
  • Ponds,
  • lakes,
  • rivers,
  • dams and canals.

Traditional Methods of Irrigation

  • moat (pully-system)
  • chain pump
  • Dhekli and
  • Rahat (lever system)

Modern Methods of Irrigation

Sprinkler System:- The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop

Sprinkler system
Sprinkler system

Drip system:- In this system, the water falls drop by drop directly near the roots. So it is called a drip system.

Class 8 Science Chapter 1 notes Drip System
Drip System

Protection from Weeds

Weeds:- Weeds are unwanted plants that grow along with the crops and are called weeds.
Protection from weeds:- The removal of unwanted plants (weeds) is necessary for better growth of the crop.

  • Weeding is necessary since weeds compete with the crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light.
  • weeding affect the growth of the crop.
  • weeds are controlled by removals of weeds by uprooting or cutting them.
  • weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2,4-D etc


Harvesting a crop is an important task. The cutting of a crop after it is mature is called harvesting.

  • In harvesting, crops are pulled out or cut close to the ground.
  • Harvesting in our country is either done manually by sickle or by a machine called a harvester
  • harvested crop, the grain seeds need to be separated from the chaff. This process is called threshing. This is carried out with the help of a machine.


For long-time use of the crop, it is necessary to store crops properly i.e kept away from moisture, insects, rats and microorganisms.

  • freshly harvested grains (seeds) are stored without drying, they may get spoilt or attacked by organisms, losing their germination capacity. Hence, before storing them, the grains are properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria and fungi.
  • Farmers store grains in jute bags or metallic bins.

Animals husbandry

Animals husbandry:- Animals reared at home or on farms, have to be provided with proper food, shelter and care. When this is done on a large scale, it is called animal husbandry.

what we learn in NCERT notes for Class 8 Science Chapter 1

In Class 8th Science Ch 1 Notes pdf / Crop Production and Management notes pdf we learn-

  • In order to provide food to our growing population, we need to adopt certain agricultural practices.
  • The same kind of plants grown and cultivated at a place constitute a crop.
  • In India, crops can be broadly categorised into two types based on seasons – rabi and Kharif crops.
  • It is necessary to prepare the soil by tilling and levelling. Ploughs and levellers are used for this purpose.
  • Sowing of seeds at appropriate depths and distances gives a good yield. A good variety of seeds are sown after the selection of healthy seeds. Sowing is done by seed drills.
  • Soil needs replenishment and enrichment through the use of organic manure and fertilisers. The use of chemical fertilisers has increased tremendously with the introduction of new crop varieties.
  • supply of water to crops at appropriate intervals is called irrigation.
  • Weeding involves the removal of unwanted and uncultivated plants called weeds.
  • Harvesting is the cutting of the mature crop manually or by machines.
  • The separation of the grains from the chaff is called threshing.
  • Proper storage of grains is necessary to protect them from pests and microorganisms.
  • Food is also obtained from animals for which animals are reared. This is called animal husbandry.

We hope you like the NCERT notes for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 pdf | Crop Production and Management notes class 8 pdf.