Botany Syllabus for UPSC Paper-1

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology, and Evolution :
Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over of gene mapping including molecular maps (the idea of mapping, function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance; sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis);
Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories.
Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology, and Biostatistics :
Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection, and hybridization (pedigree,
backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility, and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic
engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and techniques—probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR, and FISH. Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test, and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial, and Poisson). Correlation and regression.

4. Physiology and Biochemistry :
Water relations, mineral nutrition, and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis—photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation, and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4, and CAM pathways; Mechanism of phloem transport, Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)—electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances—their chemical nature, role, and applications in agri-horticulture; growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage, and germination of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular basis and manipulation.

5. Ecology and Plant Geography :
Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of the community; Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act. Forest types of India—‘Ecological and economic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation, and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention of Biological Diversity, Farmers’ Rights; and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles. Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species; Environmental Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.

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